Every SAD Light Therapy Lamp is Garbage - 4 of 5
Half-readable machine-made transcription. Original video here: Back to AI Library
[0:59:43] - Original video starting at this time
Spurs on top of it, you have your photons interact with that and then due to the Stokes shift and couple other mechanisms that life and gets spread out across all your different colors and then
So let's talk about indoor lighting. But before we get into that, we need to explain a couple things. What is light and what is color? It's actually not as simple as it sounds. So light is just electromagnetic radiation and a very narrow spectrum of that is visible light that we can see. It goes from about 400 nanometers on the violet side, up to about 700 nanometres on the red side. And that narrow band is everything our eyes can perceive and form images based off of. Now, if we look at the spectrum and we say, I have light that's at 567 nanometres or 450 tune Anne-Marie's, you choose any number on that spectrum and you say, that's where I'm getting light. That wavelength has a color associated with it. So you can say 440 is dark blue. Four hundred and ninety five is cyan, 530 green and so on. But you can't actually go the other way if you start with a color. You cannot say this color has this wavelength or this distribution of wavelengths because most of the light and color we see is not from a narrow spike in that spectrum. It is from a curve where you get a bit of this, a bit of that, and they'll mix together and that forms a color. And the way the eye perceives that is with cones like an arch are G.B. model, which is how much are you stimulating each of the three cones. One is four for red, one is for green, one is for blue. And if you have a spectrum, then you can look at how much does this light contribute to the blue cone? How much does it trigger that? And you can look at it. It's a curve shaped sort of like a bell. And if you have light that's right in the middle of that peak, then it will trigger it a lot.
If you have light off to the side at a point where you get to half the height, then you would need twice as much radiant energy at that point to trigger that cell in the eye to the same extent. And so you can combine the different contributions and then say, what RGB sort of color am I getting out of that? And the RGB model of screens doesn't get you all the colors. What's really interesting is that you define a color, you can actually get many different curves whose contributions give you that color. In fact, there's infinitely many if you have a color. So you have no way of knowing what is making that color that you're seeing. If all the information you have is that something is a particular color. And this is where the problem of indoor lighting arises and why indoor lighting is generally quite bad. That's because you can get a color temperature, which is similar to color. Well, it's a particular color. And then you can make it in different ways and some ways are worse than others. Because what happens is if you look at the color directly and it hits your eyes, it's fine. All the colors appear the same no matter how they're made. But when it reflects off of something in the room, that's when it changes. The color you see is the same, but the color of the reflected object is going to be different when you vary the spectrum that produces that color. And so that's because the the way the light reflects, you can talk about something being red because it is reflecting red light back and absorbing other colors. But it's not discrete chunks that are red, green and blue.
The reflection is actually also having a spectrum which is for this wavelength. I reflect this much at this wavelength. I reflect this much. And it varies continuously. And so if you have a different spectrum coming in, then you have to look OK at this point. This is what I get back. And so if if you have a dip somewhere, then you're going to get a dip in that reflection and that changes the color.
And so that's what people try to talk about with things like CROI color rendering index. But coloring rendering index is a very bad way of talking about this. So if if you add some sort of perfect light, depending on how you want to find that, you could either say it's it's perfectly flat or you could say it mimics the sun. Exactly. Then you know that it's going to have light in every area of the spectrum that can be reflected with lighting devices a lot of times. You have dips and you're missing portions of the spectrum. The thin make, the illuminated objects not look as nice. So color rendering index is an attempt to say, how good is my light? How well is it going to reflect objects and show the full gamut of colors and do so with high fidelity. But if it is a really bad way to measure it because it only measures eight things and these are reflectance herbs. And so the way you defined is how does it reflect something that looks like some particular reflectance spectrum. So think about a particular object. How well is that going to be reflected by this light? And there's eight of them. The problem is those eight do not adequately represent the real world. In fact, one key thing they represent very poorly is people which they they went [01:06:00] from are one, as it's called, to R_a and they left out R_9, which is a very red dominated reflectance spectrum.
And that just so happens to be a key component of skin tone. And so when this is lacking, essentially your skin. You look a lot uglier. If you have low R_9 and most light to do, but that's still just a ninth one and it's a pretty important one. Some are more important than others, but 9 is still does not give you a good representation. There's no reason that you need so few. And so CRI doesn't actually provide a good measure of am I going to enjoy what I see under this light or not? Or if I'm foot autographing something or taking a video under this light, is it going to look good or not? It doesn't tell you that at all. It can be called. The problem is, if you have two things that you think are high CRI. Let's say they're both 95. One could be much better than the other. And especially because high were so-called high CRI lighting does get into the high 90s. You have a really narrow band, so there's a lot of noise. And if you look at the spectrum's of even something like 95 or even higher, then they are lacking in a lot of ways. And that relates to how L.E.D. work. So L.E.D. actually that when you get white light, it's not that it's directly emitting white light.
What you have is a blue LED with a layer of phosphorus and those phosphorus give you a broad spectrum of wavelengths. The problem is that you get then a big spike in the narrow blue range and then you get a dip in the sky blue range, which is the range that you really want to be getting. The reason L.E.D. work this way is because this is the most energy efficient, not because it's the best way, for instance, with a violent LED and phosphorus. You can get a much better spectrum that nearly eliminates this gap in the cyan range. But it's it's slightly less energy efficient. And that's what drives the selection of L.E.D. is not what looks pleasant. And so there are a few problems with these L.E.D. from a health perspective, which is that short wavelength blue is exactly what people are scared about for macular degeneration and eyestrain. And the cyan gap is exactlythe range that you want to beginning to signal wakefulness. So if you don't get bright light and you can become very depressed and it's pretty unhealthy and it makes her sleep a lot worse. And one of the mechanisms of that is making you more sensitive to light at night, disrupting your sleep. So if you get a lot of bright light during the day, you're going to be less sensitive to late at night. And then that keeps your circadian rhythms more aligned, which helps you sleep better.
You get more melatonin, which has a bunch of healthy effects and whatever other things we don't know about sleep, although we do know quite a bit in terms of what happens when sleep disorders disrupted. So you want to be getting the Siam light sort of the sky blue light during the day and we're not getting a lot of that. But all of this is just how indoor lighting works. This is not something that even really matters if you try to fix it because indoor lighting is about 1 percent as bright as being outside. So it's really impractical to try to make everything 100x brighter even if you did have the right spectrum. So that would be really inefficient and costly from an energy everything perspective. So what is the purpose of indoor lighting? Indoor lighting is meant to allow. Mandate the environment. It is not meant to provide light to a person, and these might seem like things that you could just combine, but you can't. So illumination is based off of getting light to reflect. And so a light bulb starts at a point or a small area or a bar and then has that light bounce everywhere and then bounce toward you. And so you can see everything. So it's bright [01:10:30] enough that you can see reasonably well, but not any brighter. That's why it can be 100x dimmer than being outside.
And so you'd have to increase it by 100 hundred acts in order to get your reflected light, to go to your eyes and be sufficient. And that's really just not practical. But so here's another thing you could do, because if you're trying to get light, take your eyes. It doesn't matter that it's bouncing off of things. The only thing that matters is light from the source to the eyes. Show a point light and you have that shine to the eyes like a regular light bulb. That is an awful solution because it is going to be like looking at the headlight of a car across from you when you're driving at night. It's going to have a very high intensity and being pleasant. But if you take that same light, imagine stretching it across your field of view. You can get the same amount of light hitting your eyes, but because you spread it out, that that's what diffuse you is that it's diffused. That's just the energy of the light per the area. And you can do that lot more effectively if you have something that is close to you and that is meant to just shine light down your face so you can engineer a system around that, which is exactly when I'm developing a system that gets you lay directly to your eyes and is also a system that gets light directly to your eyes and covers a wide portion of your field of view.
You can't do that with a regular sound it so regular lights for what's called seasonal affective disorder, which is where people become very depressed in the winter from the lack of sunlight. The problem with the whole concept of seasonal affective disorder is that it is just a particular threshold which says these certain people in the winter when they don't get enough sunlight, [01:12:30] becomes so depressed and unhealthy and and their sleep becomes terrible that it rises to the level of clinical depression. And is the problem with that concept is that we unlike with regular depression, which is it's hard to say exactly what caused that. So it's hard to solve. We know exactly what cause it. And it's something that exists in everyone to varying degrees. So it is it's an arbitrary threshold that it happens to line up with regular clinical [01:13:00] depression, but it's an effect that everyone has. So I'm not building a device to treat seasonal affective disorder. I'm building a light that fixes the absence of light. It's called portal because that's what it does. It operates not on you, but on the building you're in, essentially eliminating the effects of the wall and bringing the sunlight. And, of course, a phrase things in this way because of [01:13:30] the way the FDA FDA regulations work. People talk about FDA regulations as an advertising mechanism.
So if you look at something like you, they say class to device, FDA approved or something like that are registered. And all that means is it's not gonna hurt you. It's not damaging. It can mean this is as useless as some other product which was found to not kill people, which is, you know what, the end near IIR panel light. That's true about it. But they use it to pretend that it's some blessing that says this is a very effective light and it works and it does. Everything that they say it does doesn't mean that at all. It doesn't mean there's any scrutiny on the efficacy, it's just that it's not harmful. So with seasonal affective disorder lights, the lights that exist are pretty bad because they have all these problems of indoor lighting. They just use the same L.E.D. bulbs. Some even use fluorescent bulbs, but they use these LCD bulbs that have the spike in the the narrow blue range, which is very unpleasant to look at. And they have a gap in the Siân. So the part of the eye that controls sleep in this wakefulness response, it's actually not any of the cones that form close, but it has its own spectrum. So that's right. Sort of in between blue and green and overlapping both. Which is right where the Siân gap is. So if you're missing light there, then you're not triggering that very much and you're just looking at an unpleasant light.
The other thing is you have to be looking at the light at a close distance. All of them use misleading Sfax. Ten thousand Lux. It was a study from before this cell in the eye had even been discovered, which only happened about 20 years ago. So, yes, if you just [01:15:30] put enough bright light, if you can hit everything, you'll hit something. You'll you'll hit what needs to be hit. 10000 Lux is not really a meaningful thing because Lux is not tied to this cell. So the idea of Lux is how many lumens are you getting per square meter? Well, what's a luman? It doesn't have anything to do with energy and asked to do with luminosity, which is how bright or is the thing we're perceiving. And that peaks in [01:16:00] the green range and it drops off rather dramatically in every other direction. So this also impacts your efficiency of L.E.D. because people talk about luminous efficiency, not radiant efficiency, which means if you are really over optimizing for that, you'd say, here's my building all the lights green because I determined this was the most efficient thing. You can see why that might not be so great. So anyway, 10000 lux, it's not just that you're not getting 10000 lux if you're not very close to the device because it's it's really small underpowered devices. My people who don't really take this year it announced this as, hey, you know, we can actually really radically improve human health by making something that is actually similar to sunlight.
And it's to the point where if you're a hobbyist, a who can sort or a little bit, you can build a no weekend project, something far better than any of the lights available on people do sometimes, but still they suffer from not having the right spectrum. And so that's why I'm building a thing that has exclusively light in the cyan range a little bit lower. And that's a right at the sky blue color, which gives you a few things. One, it's off of the luminous curve, which means your perception of it is perceived as less bright, which is less intense for the fact that has which means you can use as a higher setting. Researchers showed that if you have just this spectrum of light, you can get the same effect of 10000 Lux White because it's so bad with I think it was 200 locksmithing. I have to look at the exact study, but I don't want just 200 lux in this booth. So I made it so you can get it to be way brighter. So in fact, in terms of this band and the mellen optic blocks, if you wanted, you could crank this thing up brighter than the sun. But without any of the UVB light and without any light in the 400 450 nanometer range, which is what people are concerned about for for damaging their eyes.
And in fact, if you if you look at what people who are the most worried about that do, which is daytime blue blockers, computer glasses, which in fact are going to worsen your sleep. So they lie about that. If you're using those, then you don't have to use those. If you're shining bright light in your face, the right spectrum, because as you shine a bright light in your face, your pupils will contracts that you have monder in front of you. And you're worried about the harsh blue light from that, because once again you have the l_e_d_, which uses a spectrum which peaks in that blue range. That's her blue pixel. And you're getting a lot of that with the white backlight. Then you can reduce that without making your environment even dimmer than it already is. So that's just a few of ideas behind this thing that that I've built. And there's some other aspects I'll talked about in the production version, which is gonna combine some aspects of red light near-infrared. There's actually some some really cool interactions that you can get to have even better results. So I want to talk about blue blockers and how it's mostly a scam by market size in terms of the blue blockers people are buying and what they do and what they claim.